Thursday, April 25, 2024
HomeOpinionUnraveling the Complex Tapestry of Ethiopia's Political Landscape

Unraveling the Complex Tapestry of Ethiopia’s Political Landscape

Ethiopia's Political Landscape
Credit : Peace Diplomacy

By Zel’Alem Bealu 

The Amhara FANO- Resilience, Resistance, and Rebellion

In the aftermath of Ethiopia’s transition from the decades-long rule of the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), characterized by Tigray ethnic hegemony and autocracy, to the current Prosperity Party, dominated by the Oromo Peoples’ Democratic Organization (OPDO), the Amhara FANO movement has emerged as a pivotal force shaping the nation’s political dynamics. Driven by a complex web of grievances, this movement of resistance and rebellion has highlighted the challenges facing Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed’s government and the Prosperity Party in uniting Ethiopia’s diverse ethnic groups under a shared vision of democracy, economic development, and an Ethnic Federalist constitution.

A New Era: From TPLF’s Kleptocratic Ethnic Hegemony to Abiy’s Leadership

The political landscape of Ethiopia underwent a seismic transformation in 2018 when the Ethiopian people rose against the oppressive reign of the EPRDF government, which was dominated and led by the Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF), a party that had held power for 27 years. The widespread discontent with the kleptocratic TPLF’s ethnic hegemony led to a fervent desire for change, ultimately propelling Prime Minister Abiy Ahmed to power. The initial optimism surrounding Abiy’s leadership garnered support from the majority of Amharas, who were eager to witness the democratization of Ethiopia and the implementation of constitutional and economic reforms.

TPLF’s Machinations and the Outbreak of Conflict

However, simmering tensions lurked beneath the surface. The TPLF, unwilling to relinquish control, conspired to overthrow the new government. This plot culminated in the TPLF launching a preemptive attack on the Ethiopian National Defense Forces (ENDF) in November 2020, heralding the onset of a brutal conflict. On November 3-4, 2020, loyal TPLF forces initiated assaults on the ENDF Northern Command headquarters in Mekelle and bases in Adigrat, Agula, Dansha, and Sero in the Tigray Region, marking the start of the Tigray War. The fundamental cause of the conflict lay in the TPLF’s bid to regain power by leveraging its substantial forces, including special units and irregular militias, numbering over 250,000 strong.

Invasion, Turmoil, and the Rise of FANO

As the conflict escalated, the TPLF extended its reach and invaded the Amhara and Afar regions following the withdrawal of GOE forces from Tigray in June 2021. Over the span of six months, the TPLF wreaked havoc in the Amhara and Afar regions, destroying public and private infrastructures, committing extrajudicial executions, engaging in sexual violence, and perpetrating war crimes. TPLF’s audacious advance towards the capital city raised alarm bells; however, Ethiopian government forces ultimately thwarted the TPLF’s ambitions. During this period, the Amhara FANOs responded to Prime Minister Abiy’s call to join the ENDF in defense of the nation.

Internal Struggles: Trials of the Prosperity Party

While the GOE grappled with the threats presented by the TPLF, internal factional power struggles brewed within the Prosperity Party. Evidently, the Oromo Prosperity Party (OPDO), seemingly in collusion with OLF/OLA Shane, came under accusations of ethnic cleansing and mass killings targeting Amhara civilians in the Oromia region. Regrettably, the concerns of the Amhara populace were met with indifference, leading to accusations against the government for allowing these unchecked atrocities to persist. This situation has given rise to allegations of state-sponsored genocide, further exacerbated by the displacement of millions of Amharas from the Oromia Region.

A Quest for Justice: The Genesis of FANO

With mounting evidence of systematic oppression, marginalization, discrimination, ethnic cleansing, and genocide, the Amhara people reached a crossroads. The emergence of the FANO movement was a direct response to safeguarding their basic human rights for peaceful coexistence within a united Ethiopia. Reports surfaced of the Prosperity Party’s inner circle working to “reshape Ethiopian society“ to prioritize and advance the interests of the Oromo, potentially leading to the creation of a pure Oromia state, intensifying disillusionment.

The Amhara FANO Rebellion: A Struggle for Justice and Equality

At its heart, the Amhara FANO rebellion arises from the perceived injustices, discrimination, marginalization, and ethnic cleansing endured by the Amhara population. Moreover, the Amhara community responded with substantial skepticism and condemnation to the GOE’s unilateral decision to disarm the Amhara special forces and FANO militias, a move executed without prior consultation. The inability of the Prosperity Party’s Amhara faction to champion the political and economic interests of the Amharas deepened the discontent.

The movement’s rallying cries include requests for the withdrawal of the Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) from the Amhara region, the removal of the state of emergency, and the empowerment of the Amhara populace in selecting authentic leaders committed to protecting their economic, political, and human rights, as well as ensuring nationwide safety and security.

Conclusion: For an Equitable and Unified Ethiopia

The Amhara FANO rebellion encapsulates the myriad challenges confronting Ethiopia as it strives for a more democratic and inclusive future. The legacy of the TPLF’s ethnic hegemony, the current ongoing systematic marginalization and ethnic cleansing of the Amharas by the Oromo-dominated Prosperity Party, intricate ethnic dynamics, and struggles within the Prosperity Party have converged to give rise to the FANO rebellion.

As Ethiopia maneuvers through this critical crossroads, the Amhara FANO resistance movement serves as a testament to the quest for justice, freedom, human rights, dignity, equality, peaceful coexistence, and a more promising future for all Ethiopians.

Editor’s note : Views in the article do not necessarily reflect the views of  


To Publish Article On borkena, please send submission to for consideration.

Telegram Channel :

Got a business? Get Listed on Business Listing

Join the conversation. Follow us on twitter @zborkena to get the latest Ethiopian news updates regularly. Like borkena on facebook as well. To share information or send a submission, use



  1. I agree with the narration and conclusion of this short article. I also want to thank the writer a it could be a good information for those who don’t follow Ethiopian politics.

  2. While we are all tied up on what is going on in the old country we still hold very dear to our hearts there is danger lurking here around us. I have been watching and tracking the daily new cases since 2020 and it shows me that COVID 19 is raising its ugly and deadly head again. The latest numbers of daily new cases along with 7-day and 14-day averages are on an up tick. My wife and I have not dropped the mask all along and I advise you all to wear masks again when you are at indoor gathering places like stores and restaurants. You young people; you think you’re tough but you will end up doing is bringing the new variant to your loving and aging parents and grandparents. Wear your masks tough guys!!
    Stay safe y’all!!!

  3. From time immemorial, Humera, Raya, and Welkayit have been a part of the Tigray and have never been a part of the so-called Amhara region, created by the TPLF. From time immemorial, Humera, Raya, and Welkayit have been a part of the Tigray and have never been a part of the so-called Amhara region, created by the TPLF.

    Humera, Raya, and Welkayit belong to Tigray, and they have never been part of the Amhara region.
    Humera, Raya, and Welkayit belong to Tigray, and they have never been part of the Amhara region.
    Humera, Raya, and Welkayit belong to Tigray, and they have never been part of the Amhara region.
    From time immemorial, Humera, Raya, and Welkayit have been a part of the Tigray and have never been a part of the so-called Amhara region, created by the TPLF.
    Fannos are killers, robbers, kidnappers, and brutal murderers of children, nuns, priests, and elderly people. Fannos burned churches and plundered sacred religious heritage.

    Terrorists like Andargachew Tsege, Abebe Belew, Geletaw Zeleke,Shaleka Dawit W/Giorgis, Messay Mekonen, Dereje Habtewolde (Dere News), Habtamu Ayalew, and all those who share their genocidal views are genociders and should be brought to justice.

  4. In the latest news Ethiopia along with Egypt and a few other countries have their applications to join the BRICS group been accepted and will be members effective January 1, 2024. What does that mean? Above all what will that mean to the citizens of that country? I don’t know. My hunch is will not mean anything substantial. It may end up being a big arms bazaar for the founders. We will see that it is not to be beyond the rebadging of the age old ‘Non-Aligned Nations’ founded by the late emperor and a few of his contemporaries in the 1950’s. When is the last time we heard about that group? Except Brazil, South Africa and India the rest of the founding nations have been nagged by the West for their gross human rights violations. They seem to be using this grouping to get back to the West. Btw, Saudi Arabia is among the new members. Is that a set up for a punchline? Go figure!!!


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here