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Does Ethiopia Need to Re-examine Its Development Model?

Tens of millions are food insecure

Ethiopia _ development model _ Aklog
Bole Area Addis Abeba (photo : public domain /ACA)

By Aklog Birara (Dr)

In the aftermath of potential fracturing of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church (EOTC) that mobilized and unified tens of millions of Ethiopians across the globe as never before and the seemingly positive but aborted outcome that ensued, I began reflecting on what I learned from this latest episode. 

First, I concluded that Ethiopia’s ethnic federalism is incurable. Regardless of ethnicity and faith, income status or other, Ethiopians must chart a new post ethnicity, just, inclusive, citizenship based and democratic future. 

On the positive side, the overarching lesson I draw from this latest incident and gyration is that, despite more than three decades multifaceted ethnic blitz, Ethiopian society, especially its youth population places huge premium on the primacy of Ethiopian institutions, on Ethiopia as a country and on Ethiopiawinet as national identity. Muslims, Protestants, Catholics, and agnostics joined the EOTC cause because of a common thread that is stronger than the rest of the world recognizes.

But this popular uprising in defense of the one and only national institution that binds the Ethiopian people (the EOTC), has yet to produce strong Pan-Ethiopian civil society organizations, change champions with gusto and wisdom and more important independent, viable political parties with compelling vision and concrete goals.  

Simply put, the challenges that erupted immediately after Peace (Pretoria) and Disarmament (Nairobi) agreements were signed and the most recent debacle associated with the EOTC offer Ethiopians and their organizations an unmatched opportunity to re-examine their souls, values and paradigm of thinking, their political and social cultures, futures; to identify the commonalities that bind them as human beings and as Ethiopians; and compel them/us to re-assess institutions, and structures that keep us divided and confused. 

It is worth repeating that Ethiopia cannot afford to repeat strategic mistakes over and over.  

I also began asking myself whether Ethiopians ought not to focus in earnest on the bigger picture and the intractable institutional and structural root causes that keep the society sill conflicted, polarized, war prone, fragmented, still food insecure, dependent on foreign aid and increasingly inequitable. 

For example, I keep thinking how my children or I would feel if barred from entering Addis Ababa from the Amhara region or other etc.  

Three core policy matters that demand independent assessment and the crafting of alternatives come to mind: a) the imperative and urgency of changing Ethiopia’s ethnic federal constitution and system b) the importance of addressing the root causes of Ethiopia’s legendary poverty despite more than a decade of growth; and c) the imperative of forming and or establishing strong, viable, independent civil society organizations and political parties. 

All three are doable. But they require the will to change, commitment and investments. 

My current focus is on the political economy of development. I had argued numerous times before that Ethiopia has enormous potential to make poverty history. But this does not happen haphazardly. Ethiopia deserves a deliberate, well thought out, comprehensive, people-centered, and integrated development strategy and set of goals. To do this, the country needs peace, stability, and good governance. 

What is the first development priority of the government? 

The immediate and foremost priority in my view is to meet the basic needs of the Ethiopian people—food, water, sanitation and health services, shelter, electricity, and the like. Food insecurity serves as a breeding ground for terrorism, ethnic conflicts, and targeted ethnic killings. 

Ethiopia’s top-most development priority must be the elimination of abject poverty and hunger throughout the country. An even- handed approach in the allocation of budgetary resources becomes important because poverty and hunger do not have ethnic boundaries. 

Yesterday, I had an animated conversation with a former Ethiopian-military officer. He felt strongly that the price and marketing of Ethiopia’s domestic wheat is politicized at the cost of Ethiopian consumers. He opines that the state purchases wheat from farmers at lower than market prices and exports to half dozen African countries without first meeting domestic demand. This may or may not be true. What is true is that Ethiopian consumers, especially low-income citizens continue to suffer from food price hyperinflation.

Just last week, the Ethiopian Human Rights Commission (EHRC) urged the federal government of Ethiopia to give priority to more than 4.5 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Ethiopia, one of the largest in the world. 

The World Food Program reports that “Ethiopia has made important development gains over the past two decades, reducing poverty and expanding investments in basic social services. However, food insecurity and malnutrition are still a major concern across the country; an estimated 20.4 million people currently require food support. This includes internally displaced persons (IDPs), who have had to leave their homes due to the conflict in the country’s north and the severe drought in south and southeast.” This is a huge challenge that must be addressed now. 

The World Bank’s latest report confirms food insecurity that affects more than 20 million Ethiopians at present. 

Asymmetry between high growth and low human development 

On October 6, 2022, the World Bank, the largest multilateral donor to Ethiopia, reported as follows: “With about 117 million people (2021), Ethiopia is the second most populous nation in Africa after Nigeria, and still the fastest growing economy in the region, with 6.3% growth in FY2020/21. However, it is also one of the poorest, with a per capita gross national income of $960.” 

Growth rates alone do not tell us much about human development. More telling is Ethiopia’s Human Development Index that has not budged for several years. “Ethiopia ranks 175 out of 191 countries on the Human Development Index. Ethiopia ranked 175th out of 191 countries on the Human Development Index (HDI) 2021/22, placing it in a low human development category.” 

As of September 2022, Ethiopia’s strong growth rate of 6.3 percent achieved during war time is however not accompanied by meaningful changes in human development. Uneven development in HDI is also pronounced along regional and ethnic lines. 

The structure of the Ethiopian economy remains largely rural and agricultural where more than 70 percent of Ethiopians earns a living. 

There is a stark and qualitative difference in the standard of living of urban and rural communities. Nevertheless, the World Bank might be right “The consistently high economic growth over the last decade resulted in positive trends in poverty reduction in both urban and rural areas. The share of the population living below the national poverty line decreased from 30% in 2011 to 24% in 2016 and human development indicators improved as well.”

The key conclusion to which I want to draw your attention is that “Gains are modest when compared to other countries that saw fast growth, and inequality has increased in recent years. Furthermore, conflicts in various parts of Ethiopia risk undermining the economic and social development progress the country has achieved in recent years.”

I repeat what the World Bank Director told me during my visit to Ethiopia. In the north—Afar, Amhara and Tigray regions, infrastructural and economic investments have been destroyed during the war. Relief and rehabilitation will require hundreds of billions of Birrs of investment capital that Ethiopia may not have. 

I do hope UN Secretary General Antonio Guterres (currently in Ethiopia) pays a visit to the Afar, Amhara and Tigray regions and urge UN humanitarian and aid agencies to be even handed. 

Ethiopia has a well-established track record or history of economic development plans, some successful  and others not so. The World Bank acknowledges the current effort. “The government has launched a 10-Year Development Plan, based on the 2019 Home-Grown Economic Reform Agenda, which will run from 2020/21 to 2029/30. The plan aims to sustain the remarkable growth achieved under the Growth and Transformation Plans of the previous decade, while facilitating the shift towards a more private-sector-driven economy. It also aims to foster efficiency and introduce competition in key growth-enabling sectors (energy, logistics, and telecom), improve the business climate, and address macroeconomic imbalances.”

The Bank left out many aspects of poor governance such as bribery, corruption, nepotism, land grab, uneven allocation of federal government budget, unfair distribution of aid funds, inefficient administrative services as well as state/party and government led grandeur projects that swallow massive capital without making a dent in HDI. In other words, for reasons that escape me, the Bank neglected to mention controversial mega projects. One example comes to mind. 

Is development about Abiy or Ethiopia? 

On February 6, 2023, Le Monde wrote a piece under the title: “In Ethiopia, a pharaonic palace for Abiy Ahmed, taken by delusions of grandeur.” It refers to Abiy Ahmed’s personal Chaka Project that the Prime Minister has in mind. “Artificial lakes, zoo, luxury villas… The building impulses of the Ethiopian leader are disproportionate. The Chaka Project, on the heights of Addis Ababa, will have a footprint of 503 hectares in the Yaka Forest.”

The cost of this monumental project is staggering. Noe Hochet-Bodin reports that “The Chaka Project reflects the ambitions of the head of the Ethiopian government: disproportionate. On an area of ​​503 hectares, it should include a palace supposed to house the Prime Minister, but also three artificial lakes, a zoo, a waterfall, and a real estate project of luxury villas. Abiy Ahmed acknowledged this himself before Parliament on November 15, 2022: “We hear in town that the Prime Minister is building a palace for the sum of 49 billion birrs [approximately 850 million euros]  while ‘Truly it will be around 400 billion or 500 billion birr . By way of comparison, the construction of the “palace of a thousand rooms”, inaugurated in 2014 by the Turkish president, Recep Tayyip Erdogan, in Ankara ,had cost 491 million euros.”

Is Erdogan’s model replicable in capital poor Ethiopia where 20 million people are in dire need of food? 

The Chaka project about which most Ethiopians have no clue is indeed “colossal” for a country that is food insecure, capital poor and aid dependent. The assumption that Ethiopia’s private sector will fund it is opportunistic and questionable. “According to several Addis Ababa City Hall officials speaking on condition of anonymity, the total cost of the Chaka Project could reach around 800 billion birr (13.8 billion euros), a sum roughly equivalent to the annual Ethiopian budget. According to these same sources, the United Arab Emirates, close allies of Abiy Ahmed, would finance a large part of the palace. The Ethiopian leader’s entourage is also counting on the economic spinoffs of the various real estate projects to ensure their viability.”

Why is there not Parliamentary oversight? Why is there not public outrage? 

Le Monde puts the matter starkly. “This is not the first time that the Prime Minister has circumvented Parliament in this way. For his previous infrastructure projects, he has several times appealed to wealthy Ethiopians from his circle or from the diaspora, raising billions of birrs at gala dinners called “Dine for Ethiopia”. Since 2018, the strong man of Addis Ababa has undertaken, at great expense, a series of flashy projects intended to embellish the capital: modernization of the central Meskel square, conversion of the palace of Emperor Haile Selassie into a museum, creation many parks, libraries and museums…”

Edifice for personal glory is not development. 

You will have a hard time locating the 800 billion Birr Chaka Project in the country’s 10-year development plan. If implemented, the project will divert technical and professional manpower as well as government capital away from critical infrastructural and other projects. 

Capital intensive, it will limit Ethiopia’s capacity to absorb 2 million new people who enter the work force each year. As the Le Monde analysis notes, “Abiy Ahmed frequently visits the premises, located less than 5 kilometers from his current office. But the sumptuous palace under construction is not to everyone’s taste. In addition to its colossal price, the site leads to the deforestation of part of the Yeka site and the expropriation of thousands of households living on the heights of the capital.”

The social aspect of the project alone should have persuaded Abiy Ahmed to abandon this “White Elephant,” that has more to do with personal glory rather than sustainable and equitable development. 

A country whose economy is on the brink of collapse cannot afford to squander more of its scarce resources for the personal glory of the Prime Minister.  

In summary, I urge: 

  1. Ethiopians in the Diaspora and at home to mobilize their talent pool, work together, examine the current 10-year plan, assess the efficacy of the Chaka project, and present a more compelling strategic development alternative for consideration by the Ethiopian people as well as by the donor community including the World Bank.

I am fully cognizant that current priority is human security, peace, stability, the rule of law and the country’s durability. But it is important to do it in parallel. 

  1. Ethiopians in the Diaspora and within the country to mobilize the requisite talent pool, take a hard look at the current constitution, retain what is useful and recommend changes for the benefit of Ethiopia’s 122 million people and succeeding generations.  

This too must not divert our attention away from the immediate priorities. It can be done in parallel if we have confidence (I do) that Ethiopia and Ethiopianism will continue. 

  1.  Prime Minister Abiy to drop his “colossal” and hugely costly Chaka project before ordinary millions go to the streets. 

Stop equating Ethiopia with yourself. Ethiopia was there before you and will continue after you, Sir. Your priority is to respond to the immediate economic, social and security needs and expectations of tens of millions of Ethiopians, including the employment needs of two million young Ethiopians who enter the workforce every year.

Editor’s note : views in the article reflect the views of the writer, not the views of borkena.com 

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6 COMMENTS

  1. Thank you Dr. Aklog Birara

    Wow!
    “Chaka project”
    ============

    This is big “News” to me, & millions of Ethiopians at home and abroad.
    =============

    The Palace building, bug!!!

    Saddam Hussein, the late President of Iraq, was the last well known “Palace enthusiast” and the builder of many.
    For Saddam’s credit, he was in political power for 18 years ( 1968 – 1986) before building his first palace.

    Here is the story from one of the Villagers that were “relocated” to make room for Saddam’s Palace. (below)

    “MEKY MOHAMED FARHOUD GREW UP in a small village called Qawarish on the edge of the Tigris River, among pomegranate, orange, and date trees. The village is just steps away from the ruins of ancient Babylon, the Mesopotamian kingdom that Hammurabi helped build into one of the world’s largest cities. As a child, Farhoud played soccer in fields studded with ceramic shards and bricks from long ago. “I had a golden childhood,” he says.

    But Qawarish’s famed location ultimately doomed it. In the 1980s, during the Iran-Iraq War, Saddam Hussein became obsessed with the Babylonian ruler Nebuchadnezzar, who is notorious for waging bloody wars to seize large swaths of current-day Iran and Israel. Saddam saw himself as a modern reincarnation of Nebuchadnezzar, and to prove it, he spent millions building a massive reconstruction of Babylon.

    Saddam wanted a palace to overlook his works, and Qawarish had the unfortunate luck of standing in the perfect location. In 1986, Saddam’s workers blasted away Farhoud’s village and built an artificial hill in its place. Today, Saddam’s palace upon a hill stands on the same site where Farhoud went to school; from it, you can see reconstructed walls and mazes with perfect clarity. That beautiful view came at an immense cost. “I cried,” remembers Farhoud. “At that time, I felt like the village was a member of my family. I loved it.””

    Source = atlasobscura.com/articles/babylon-iraq-saddam-hussein

    The above story seem eerily identical to Abiy’s “Chaka project”, and It is ABSURD, to say the least.

    Yet, Abiy has only been in office for 4 years… vs Saddam 18 years, before even thinking such a lavish project for himself.

    And there is no guaranty Abiy will be reelected in 2027, and to spend such a huge amount of $$$ for one “useless project” in the country where millions go hungry is nothing short of “criminal” in my opinion; and MUST BE STOOPED!!!

    With that amount of money, several “irrigation canals” or “waters pipelines” should be built to transfer water from water rich areas to water poor-areas in the country and farm land expanded.

    We need to be able to FEED our people, before building lavish-palaces for public-servants, as DICTATORS had done elsewhere.

    I and millions of others regarded this gentleman as “the leader Ethiopia needed at this critical time”, and to learn about this extravaganza planed by him to lavishly entertain himself & family is unacceptable.

    These nonsense must be stopped immediately.

    It is only appropriate, he himself to come out & announce that this “Chaka project” is dead in the water, & replaced by “irrigation canals”, that will help grow the nations economy and allow us to FEED our people.

    Be well.

    .

    • የነፍጠኛን ሲኖዶስ እናፈርሳለን ነፍጠኛም ከፊንፊኔ አናስወጣለን ድል ለኦኤላኣ ፊንፊኔ የኦሮሚያ ዋና ከተማ ነው ነፍጠኛ ይወጣል

      Those wicked pastors of amhara origin who were encouraging the believers to engage in conflict with police are from mahjibrekidusan.
      And mihretab & amhara bishops controlling the unholy synod also played a key role in the chaos.
      These wicked people of amhara neftegna need to be brought to justice and should be locked up in Maximum security prisons and supermax prisons .

      Poor innocent civilians died in vain, incontrsat to fake propaganda of being martyr, to protect bishops’ seat and financial interest.
      አባ አብርሃም የተወገዙ ሰዎችን አናስገባም ብለው ተሰው አለ ::ለግለሰብ(:ለአባ አብርሃም ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች ) ጥቅም ሰውን ማስጨፍጨፍ ከሃይማኖት አባት ነኝ ከሚል የማይጠበቅ ወራዳ ፍጠኛ አሸባሪ ሥራ ነው ::ከቴም ሰማዕትነት no crown of martyrs who died to mainatin power and source of income to amhara elites who play religious cards.

      Amhara bishops are going t consecrate abiy amhed and shimelis to be archbishop of PP and honor him as liqenegestat

      Reply

      አባ አብርሃም ና ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች ሥልጣን ይልቀቁ ጵጵስናቸው ይሻር ቀድሞውንም የተወገዙ ናቸው ማህበረቅዱሳን የተባለው እርኩስ ቡድን ይፍረስ ቀንደኛ አባላቱ ይታሰሩ ፥፥ማህበረቅዱሳን የተባለው የፖለቲካ ድርጅት ነው፥፥ ወገኖቻችን ኦሮሞዎች ሲታረዱ መግለጫ ሊያወጡ አልፈለጉም ፥፥የጥፋት ደጋፊዎች የሞሉበት የሀሰት መነኮሳት በአበ ነፍስነት የሚመሩት ቤተክርስቲያኗን ያረከሱ ናቸው፤፤አባ አብርሃም ና ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች የሚመራው የነፍጠኛ ሲኖዶስ የአፈና ዘረፋ ቡድን ያለው በሰይጣን የሚመራ አፍራሽ አሸባሪ ነው፤፤የነፍጠኛ ቀሳውስት በየወሩ በሚሊዮኖች የሚቆጠር ገንዘብ ከቤተክርስቲያኗ ከደሃ ሕዝብ ይዘርፋሉ፤፤ ለስልጣናቸው ሲሉ ደሃ ሕዝብ ሕይወት በሃይማኖት ሽፋን ሲገብሩ ቆይተዋል፤፤የጥንታውያን አድባራትን ንዋየቅዱሳን እየዘረፉ(እየሰረቁ) ወደ ውጭ ሀገር በማጋዝ በውጭ የሚኖረውን ሕዝብ ይበዘብዛሉ፤፤የአማራሲኖዶስ የሌቦች መተተኞች አራጆች ስብስብ ነው፥፥ከኦሮሚያ ና የኦሮሚያ ዋና ከተማ በሆነችው በለምዶ አዲስባ ፊንፊኔ እናስወጣዋለን ፤፤ቪቫ የኦሮያ አፃአውጪ የትግል አጋሮቻችን ልጆቻችን፤፤ቪቫ

      • የነፍጠኛን ሲኖዶስ እናፈርሳለን ነፍጠኛም ከፊንፊኔ አናስወጣለን ድል ለኦኤላኣ ፊንፊኔ የኦሮሚያ ዋና ከተማ ነው ነፍጠኛ ይወጣል
        Finfine capital of Oromia, neftegna out of Oromia

        Those wicked pastors of amhara origin who were encouraging the believers to engage in conflict with police are from mahjibrekidusan.
        And mihretab & amhara bishops controlling the unholy synod also played a key role in the chaos.
        These wicked people of amhara neftegna need to be brought to justice and should be locked up in Maximum security prisons and supermax prisons .

        Poor innocent civilians died in vain, incontrsat to fake propaganda of being martyr, to protect bishops’ seat and financial interest.
        አባ አብርሃም የተወገዙ ሰዎችን አናስገባም ብለው ተሰው አለ ::ለግለሰብ(:ለአባ አብርሃም ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች ) ጥቅም ሰውን ማስጨፍጨፍ ከሃይማኖት አባት ነኝ ከሚል የማይጠበቅ ወራዳ ፍጠኛ አሸባሪ ሥራ ነው ::ከቴም ሰማዕትነት no crown of martyrs who died to mainatin power and source of income to amhara elites who play religious cards.

        Amhara bishops are going t consecrate abiy amhed and shimelis to be archbishop of PP and honor him as liqenegestat
        አባ አብርሃም ና ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች ሥልጣን ይልቀቁ ጵጵስናቸው ይሻር ቀድሞውንም የተወገዙ ናቸው ማህበረቅዱሳን የተባለው እርኩስ ቡድን ይፍረስ ቀንደኛ አባላቱ ይታሰሩ ፥፥ማህበረቅዱሳን የተባለው የፖለቲካ ድርጅት ነው፥፥ ወገኖቻችን ኦሮሞዎች ሲታረዱ መግለጫ ሊያወጡ አልፈለጉም ፥፥የጥፋት ደጋፊዎች የሞሉበት የሀሰት መነኮሳት በአበ ነፍስነት የሚመሩት ቤተክርስቲያኗን ያረከሱ ናቸው፤፤አባ አብርሃም ና ጴጥሮስ የሚባሉ ፋኖዎች የሚመራው የነፍጠኛ ሲኖዶስ የአፈና ዘረፋ ቡድን ያለው በሰይጣን የሚመራ አፍራሽ አሸባሪ ነው፤፤የነፍጠኛ ቀሳውስት በየወሩ በሚሊዮኖች የሚቆጠር ገንዘብ ከቤተክርስቲያኗ ከደሃ ሕዝብ ይዘርፋሉ፤፤ ለስልጣናቸው ሲሉ ደሃ ሕዝብ ሕይወት በሃይማኖት ሽፋን ሲገብሩ ቆይተዋል፤፤የጥንታውያን አድባራትን ንዋየቅዱሳን እየዘረፉ(እየሰረቁ) ወደ ውጭ ሀገር በማጋዝ በውጭ የሚኖረውን ሕዝብ ይበዘብዛሉ፤፤የአማራሲኖዶስ የሌቦች መተተኞች አራጆች ስብስብ ነው፥፥ከኦሮሚያ ና የኦሮሚያ ዋና ከተማ በሆነችው በለምዶ አዲስባ ፊንፊኔ እናስወጣዋለን ፤፤ቪቫ የኦሮያ አፃአውጪ የትግል አጋሮቻችን ልጆቻችን፤፤ቪቫ

        • Hitler of Germany, in late 1930’s was convinced that the same rhetoric like yours was the way to go, and they marched forward with it, but soon enough, he and his followers as well as the people of Germany were reminded that, their way was WRONG and were STOPPED and SEVERELY punished for it.
          Nearly 80 years later, Germans are still under that punishment, and Germany remains as a Vassal state, and following orders from someone else.
          Learning from history, and understanding one’s limit and becoming civil and INCLUCIVE is best for all INVOLVED.

          Be well.

  2. Thank God for the existence of the 255 pages long unadulterated Ethiopian population census of 1984. All data manufactured by the ethnic apartheid fascist regimes of tplf and pp must be taken with a grain of salt and some aspirin for the headache and some antacid for the ulcer caused by the sheer stupidity, bias, ethnic hatred and marginalization of millions.

    The 1984 census tabulated the breakdown of the various ethnic groups in Ethiopia in detail. The Oromo comprised 29.1 % and the Amhara were 28.3%. In the past 30 years, the Amhara population have been under counted by over 10,000,000 deliberately and denied proportionate distribution of the budget. Similarly, the nearly 43% of Ethiopians tabulated under other ethnic groups, including the patriotic Afar people, the incredibly talented Somali, Harare Ethiopians, the talented and hard working people in Gurage, Wolaita, Sidama, Gambella regions have also been denied their proportionate share of the budget. For example, data shows the Somali region dwarfing the tiny Tigray region by more than 6 folds received virtually nothing in the past 30 years.

    Even sadder is the fact that our poor and neglected brothers and sisters under whose name TPLF marketed its greed got nothing to lift them out of poverty and nearly 2 million of them have lived in food safety zone for three decades.

    Today the pp led by abiy ahmed, just like his stepfather and stepmother tplf did, is exploiting the national budget using the oromo name for personal gain and enrichment. The AA city council inundated by pp opportunists unashamedly announces a benefits package of 16,000 birr per month per person on top of their monthly salaries.
    What is even worse, even embezzling that amount of money does not motivate them to work hard and diligently to solve the AA residents basic questions: traffic congestion, inflation, water availability and distribution,electricity availability and distribution, price control, availability of basic medicines, cleanliness and sanitation services, garbage collection, recycling etc. But are these buffoons working on these urgent questions of residents, of course not. Adanech is busy politicizing flag issues, and throwing language grenade on the population, pure waste of tax payers birr.

  3. It’s interesting analysis. As a matter of fact the personal behavior of our PM Abiy Ahmed has become of a sort of perplexing; especially his way of addressing the Parliamentarians.
    1) We all remember two years back, how he replied when he was asked about the funding of the Sheger Project. It was a sort of “None of your business!” Mined you it was to the supreme power of the country, HPR!!! Should there be anything which shouldn’t be reported to it?
    2) when addressing for the manner of selection of commissioners of the for said he gave the power to the parliament to set up a commission which used to be his authority…
    3) similarly he addressed on the budget on the “CHAKA PROJECT” told the parliament that none of their business as long as it is not included in the federal budget which will be approved . does that mean he can use any money, even coming from our enemies want to control us indirectly?
    These all are worrisome behaviors of undermining the authority of the HPR! He’s showing them that he’s super minded and so has to do what he thinks is good for the county without their oversight?
    It also reflects that the relationship between the legislative and executive branches of a gov’t is being reversed or being handed over to one person.
    Let God Save Ethiopia & Its People!

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